A single-chain variable fragment antibody (scFv) against plumbagin (PL) accumulated the PL production in the hairy roots of Plumbago zeylanica. Recombinant Agrobacterium rhizogenes (ATCC 15834) containing an scFv gene against PL (PL-scFv) were obtained through triparental mating and transformed into P. zeylanica to induce PL-scFv protein in the hairy roots. Up to 40 μg recombinant PL-scFv were expressed per milligram of soluble protein in transgenic P. zeylanica hairy root cultures. The mean PL content obtained from transgenic hairy roots (12.24 μg/100 mg dry weight) exhibited 2.2 times higher than those obtained from wild-type (5.48 μg/100 mg dry weight). The high correlation between the PL-scFv expression level and PL content of the recombinant plants suggested that the PL biosynthesis pathway had been modulated by the expression of PL-scFv protein in the hairy roots of P. zeylanica.